Less imperative to operations, “nice to have” activities could in principle be eliminated without affecting the company’s license to operate. But the company’s competitive position may well be affected. As a result, “nice to have” activities must be separated into those that are needed to continue to support growth and marketplace performance and those that could be changed or even shelved completely. The ones we chose to maintain were certainly discretionary but were nonetheless considered distinctive and critical to our ultimate goal of being the most competitive and innovative energy company.
In some ways, identifying the keepers is the easy part. Discerning which activities can be terminated demands a great deal of discipline and dispassion, and requires smart, diligent teams who can prepare the business argument for or against them. Often, certain activities are green-lighted and well funded year after year because that’s the way it has been done historically at the company, even though these activities may have outlived their usefulness. For instance, a business unit may have at one point established teams to adopt and implement global standards, but these groups may have been rendered essentially irrelevant when the company set up centralized corporate standards centers that called on outside subject matter experts as needed. In our case at Shell, by canceling unused software licenses for the dozens of applications that we’d amassed over the years — such as geological imaging systems needed by only a small percentage of the people who had been given paid access to them — we were able to save millions of dollars without weakening operations in the least.
Moreover, sunk costs can sometimes persuade corporate executives to keep projects alive, with the idea that shutting down a project essentially wastes the resources already invested in it. As appealing as this notion of avoiding waste may be, it is foolhardy if better value can be unearthed elsewhere, in another project or asset. Tough and intelligent choices must be made about all activities for the full long-term impact of zero-based cost management to be felt.
Step 3. Adjust budget lines for surviving activities. After the “must-have” and “nice to have” activities were identified, we began the task of allocating the funding required to best manage our critical assets and projects. This means we actually lowered our budgets to match the expectations derived from the zero-based assessment. From this analysis, we could see whether after budgeting for all the activities core to our operations we could reach the 30 percent cost savings we envisioned. Had we failed to reach that goal, we would have had to pare back the discretionary activities and assets further.
Clarity and Commitment
In undertaking this exercise, we learned relatively quickly that there are many ways to challenge budgets for discretionary activities. For example, ask yourself, “Which activities can be simplified or aggregated?” Just because an activity is necessary doesn’t mean that it is being performed efficiently. In addition, similar activities may be duplicated across functions. Such cases may be widely known but remain unaddressed because changing them would be complicated, time-consuming, or difficult politically within the organization. In the zero-based approach, these impediments should be circumvented, once and for all. For instance, we combined and reduced “nice to have” finance and services activities linked to oil well operations.
At Shell, one of the key opportunities for cost efficiency was in rebalancing the work that we manage in-house and the work we contract out at our assets. We’ve increasingly embraced an outsourcing model for maintenance activities, but over time this has proven to be insufficiently flexible in reacting to market developments and business requirements and has resulted in additional costs. For instance, an integrated services contractor that performs a variety of tasks over numerous assets handles the frontline maintenance in our facilities. However, during our zero-based budget analysis, we realized that by bringing some of this work in-house, we could save on the cost of maintenance and reduce expenditures targeted for logistics and supervision. Particularly on offshore rigs, a tremendous amount of money is spent on moving contractors on and off the platforms and on coordinating their schedules.